The Munda Dictionary Project

How to use the dictionaries

Since The Munda Dictionary Project aims to offer dictionaries in an easy-to-read format to a wider audience, we try to avoid scientific terms and abbreviations whenever possible. However, some linguistic terms and abbreviations are necessary and cannot be dispensed with. These are listed below and briefly explained.


List of abbreviations: Word classes and tags for the classification of words

ADJ - adjective
ADV - adverb
CONJ - conjunction
DEM - demonstrative
FUNC - functional or grammatical morphemes (there is a distinction between an open class (contentive morphemes) and a closed class (funtional/grammatical morphemes, proforms, deictics, grammatical morphemes) in Kharia)
GRAM - grammatical morpheme / word (a word or morpheme with a grammatical function ('function word')
INTERJ - interjunction
N - noun
NUM - numeral
OPEN - open class (there is a distinction between an open class (contentive morphemes) and a closed class (funtional/grammatical morphemes, proforms, deictics, grammatical morphemes) in Kharia)
PRON - pronoun
V - verb (in languages in which there is a distinction between v1 and v2 or v:itr and v:tr, this classification is used for uncertain cases)
V:ITR - intransitive verb
V:TR - transitive verb
V1 / V2 - the distinction between and the meaning of the verbal "classes" V1 and V2 are language-specific. For more information, grammars of the respective language should be consulted



List of abbreviations: Other linguistic terms

ABL - ablative
CAUS - causative
CLASS - (numeral) classifier
CVB - converb
DU - dual
FOC - focus
GEN - genitive
HON - honorific
INCL - inclusive
INDEF - indefinite
INF - infinitive
INST - instrumental
INTR - intransitive
IPFV - imperfective
IRR - irrealis
MID - middle voice
OBL - oblique
POSS - possession
PL - plural
PERF - perfect
REFL - reflexive
PERS - grammatical marker of person
PRS - present tense
PROG - progressive
PST - past tense
PTCP - participle
SG - singular


Graphemes and phonetic symbols

The symbols used in the dictionaries follow the conventions of the respective sources but have been unified wherever possible, based (often somewhat loosely) on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). However, a certain degree of ambiguity regarding the symbols cannot be avoided in a cross-linguistic project such as this, especially since the different authors do not always use these symbols systematically. In case of doubt, the respective work should be consulted directly.

The full IPA chart can be found here for those who are not familiar with it:
https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/content/full-ipa-chart